Introduction Diabetes mellitus has become

Introduction
Diabetes mellitus has become a global problem in recent decades: it is a leading cause of blindness, end stage renal disease and non-traumatic amputation. Its prevalence increased day by day worldwide without any plateau (Spanou and Tziomalos, 2013; Nawaz et al., 2017a,b). So, there is need of healthy natural products to cure this disease (Abbas et al., 2017; Gohar et al., 2017). Date fruit (Phoenix dactylifera L.) as a source of nutrition and economics has become important in few countries (Briones et al., 2011). Phoenix dactylifera L. belongs to the Arecaceae family. Dates pits are more valuable due to their nutritional composition and high amounts of dietary fibers present in date pits (Bouaziz et al., 2010). The seed powder is used in few traditional medicine due to potential of human health benefits. Date palm possess antioxidant, anticancer, antihypertensive, antimutagenic, antifungal and antidiarrheal potential (Janbaz et al., 2013). Black pepper (Piper Nigrum) belongs to family Piperaceae, a perennial plant producing berry-like and pungent fruit. It is cultivated in many tropical regions but it still occurs wild in the mountains of Kerala state in India. It is valued due to its different bitter quality credited to piperine and its isomers. Black pepper possesses immune-stimulatory, anti-tumorigenic, carminative, anticholesterolemic and also known for its phytochemical activities. Piperine helps in the buy PR957 of various substances like vitamins, curcumin and other nutrients (Ahmad et al., 2010; Muhammad et al., 2017). Due to their valuable uses the present study aimed to evaluate the black pepper and ajwa seed extract on liver enzymes activities.

Materials and methods

Results

Discussion
Alloxan induced diabetic rats are one of the animal model for diabetes. It is well known for pancreatic islets beta cell cytotoxicity and commonly used to induce diabetes. Alloxan causes time and concentration dependent degradation lesions of the pancreatic beta cells leading to hyperglycemia. A standard antidiabetic drug glibenclamide is most frequently used in alloxan-induced diabetes to compare the efficacy of variety of hypoglycemic agents (Baldi and Goyal, 2011; Nawaz et al., 2017a,b).
Ajwa date has increased acceptance as life-saving nutritional power plant that can feed the needy. It is commonly used to treat cardiac disorders and infections as a natural therapy. Findings of our study showed that ajwa seed extract and the mixture of black pepper and ajwa seed produced a marked decrease in blood glucose level in diabetic rats after 8weeks of treatment. The antidiabetic effect may be due to release of insulin from existing pancreatic beta cells. Our findings agree with those reported by El Fouhil et al. (2013) and Manoharan et al. (2007).
In diabetic animal’s alteration in the activity of serum enzymes directly related to changed metabolism in which enzymes are involved. Increased activity of liver enzymes in diabetic animals are reported by many researchers. Increased transaminases level in absence of insulin because of increased amino acid activity in hyperglycemic condition are responsible for ketogenesis and gluconeogenesis (Baldi and Goyal, 2011; Atta et al., 2017).
The present study represents increased activities of serum AST, ALT and ALP level indicated that hepatic dysfunction may be induced due to hyperglycemia in diabetic rats. The best results of liver function recorded with group fed by ajwa seed aqueous extract they showed no significant difference with standard drug glibenclamide. The results of the present study agree with Reda (2006), Najafi (2011) who reported that extract of date seed shows capability to restore the normal functional status and also to protect liver in rats against alloxan induced toxicity. Moreover, in another study it was documented that by improving the diabetic diet helps to prevent diabetic complications (Hadrami and Al-Khayri, 2012; Ishaq and Jafri, 2017; Mustafa et al., 2017). Wakade et al. (2008) reported in their study that black pepper decreased significantly AST level in diabetic rats but there is non-significant effect observed at ALT and ALP level. Along with that Salih (2013) reported in their study that individuals with diabetes are at a high risk of liver function abnormalities as compare to normal. Slight chronic elevation in transaminases level most often reflect the insulin resistance.