br Discussion These results are consistent with the

Discussion
These results are consistent with the results of other studies in which the percentage distribution of the occurrence of the secure DIG-11-dUTP in people addicted to alcohol varies from 5.4 to 40%, while insecure attachment styles vary from 66 to 94.6% [21, 23, 24, 35]. Studies have also shown that among addicts variables such as the avoidance of closeness and fear of intimacy assume much higher values than in patients without addiction [22]. It seems therefore, that the occurrence of insecure attachment styles and dimensions of such intensity (that indicates feelings of mistrust in interpersonal relationships) is prevalent in patients with alcohol dependence. In addition, there are also a number of studies conducted in non-clinical groups, especially among adolescents and students, which show that the presence of insecure attachment styles and high levels of anxiety and avoidance attachment dimensions is associated with alcohol abuse and experiencing serious consequences of drinking [29, 36, 37].
However, when analysing the relationship between alcohol dependence and individual insecure patterns of attachment, there are some discrepancies in the literature, mainly consisting of the fact that the importance of this relationship concerns either the avoidant attachment style only, or only the anxious-ambivalent style, or both styles [27, 38]. On the one hand, this is because of methodological differences, including the use of various scale test patterns to distinguish the attachment and the utilisation of three or four category patterns. Moreover, the available studies often include groups dependent on different psychoactive substances without division into subgroups dependent on individual substances, which in accordance with the concept that there is a phenomenon of preferences of substances depending on the patient\’s comorbid psychopathology [14, 39] appears to be a simplification and perhaps contributing to the confusion resulting from these studies. On the other hand, the researchers admit that this variation in the results for individual styles of attachment occurring in addicts is still unclear and requires further study [27, 28, 38]. In the dimensions of attachment studies tend to be a bit more consistent, but those that emphasise the importance of the relationship between alcohol dependence and one dimension of attachment can also be found [29]. The results of our study show that in the group of alcohol dependent persons two insecure attachment styles as well as strengthening of both attachment dimensions, unfavourable for building interpersonal relationships, occur significantly more often. These results are comparable with other studies [24, 35, 40].
According to the initial assumptions, differences in the styles and dimensions of attachment were also found in alcohol dependent men and women compared to non-dependent persons. Both men and women dependent on alcohol exhibit difficulties in establishing secure, trusting interpersonal relationships and at the same time have an increased tendency to feel anxiety and fear about the stability of the relationship, resulting from the lack of a sense of security and/or actively avoiding forming close, intimate relationships. These results are comparable with other studies [23], although there is very little research which takes into account the gender of persons addicted to alcohol. The results of those available are also inconsistent; some of them emphasise the existence of relationships between insecure attachment styles and unfavourable attachment dimensions in men and no association or an association to a limited extent in women [27, 29]. In the context of this study the only variable differentiating attachment styles in alcohol dependent men and women is anxiety; men addicted to alcohol tend to exhibit greater anxiety about being rejected, although it is worth noting that the strength of the correlation is weak. Taking into account the fact that in women more often than in men the understanding of alcohol dependence is based on a model for reducing stress and anxiety, and the concept of self-medication [41], the results of greater attachment anxiety among dependent men seem to be surprising and require further verification. Similarly, the results indicating the ambiguous relationship between the variables of attachment and gender in the group of addicts require further verification. The results obtained indicate differences between dependent men and women, but these groups are differentiated to a low degree. It seems that results obtained by the authors of the study, showing similar trends occurring in men and women suggest a certain universality of such theoretical assumptions. On the other hand, the results of other studies, as well as a small number of subjects in this study, require one to be cautious about these results.

Uzyskane w tej pracy wyniki mo na te

Uzyskane w tej pracy wyniki można też rozpatrywać w odniesieniu do teorii systemów rodzinnych Bowena, w której podejmowana jest problematyka procesów separacyjnych w rodzinach [27]. Rezultaty badań wskazują [28, 29], że osoby uzależnione mają niższy stopień zróżnicowania Ja niż osoby z populacji nieuzależnionej. Jednocześnie przyjmuje się, że stopień zróżnicowania Ja danego członka rodziny jest określany przez stopień zróżnicowania Ja jego przodków; proces ten zachodzi na drodze transmisji międzypokoleniowej [1, 4, 12]. Wyniki tych badań wyraźnie korespondują z poglądem Crespiego [30], który twierdzi, że emocjonalny klimat panujący w rodzinach z problemem alkoholowym nie sprzyja prawidłowemu różnicowaniu Ja. Zbieżne są one również z myślą Margasińskiego [27] – jego zdaniem w rodzinach alkoholowych, rodzice mogą postrzegać indywidualizm członków rodziny jako zagrożenie dla homeostazy systemu. Podsumowując, można powiedzieć, że niewystarczający poziom zróżnicowania Ja, wyniesiony z rodziny pochodzenia, mógł odcisnąć piętno na życiu dorosłych kobiet, które doświadczyły w dzieciństwie alkoholizmu rodzica, zaburzając proces budowania ich własnej odrębności.
W badaniu stwierdzono, że zaburzenia procesu separacji–indywiduacji uwidaczniają się niezależnie od tego, czy kobiety mające pijącego rodzica korzystały z pomocy psychologicznej, czy też nie. Zgodnie z koncepcją przywiązania [3, 5], ukształtowane w dzieciństwie w toku powtarzających się interakcji z jednym lub wieloma opiekunami wewnętrzne modele operacyjne wykazują dużą oporność na zmiany i względną stabilność w ciągu życia. Można zatem przypuszczać, że wczesnodziecięcy zapis relacji z opiekunami u kobiet DDA utrwalił się, pozostawiając ślad nie tylko w ich psychice, ale także w ciele [22, 24, 25, 47]. Zgodnie z podejściem niektórych klinicystów [6, 46, 47], przyjmuje się, że sposobem przepracowania tych doświadczeń może być wytrwała i żmudna praca nad postępami procesu separacji–indywiduacji, umożliwiająca oddzielanie wewnętrznego obrazu samego siebie od obrazu rodzica. W tym zakresie pomocna może być indywidualna psychoterapia werbalna, psychoterapia grupowa albo inne doświadczenia, w których pracuje się nad granicami psychicznymi (np. określone formy pracy z ciałem) [47].
Analiza wyników w grupie kobiet DDA wskazuje na istnienie związku pomiędzy nasileniem trudności w obszarze separacji–indywiduacji i odwróceniem ról w relacji dziecka z uzależnionym rodzicem w przeszłości adenylate cyclase parentyfikacją w teraźniejszości. Pozwalają one pogłębić i zrozumieć istotę połączeń leżących u podstaw tych zjawisk. W literaturze odwołującej się do teorii przywiązania [3, 6, 13, 48] wskazuje się, że osoby z zaburzonym przebiegiem procesu separacji–indywiduacji oraz z doświadczeniami parentyfikacji w dzieciństwie są bardziej podatne na powtarzanie wzorca odwrócenia ról w dorosłym życiu. Tezę tę potwierdzają wyniki prezentowanych badań, w odniesieniu do wymiaru parentyfikacji polegającej na poczuciu niesprawiedliwości w przeszłości i teraźniejszości. Uzyskane rezultaty pozwalają z pewnym prawdopodobieństwem przyjąć, że u kobiet mających uzależnionego rodzica zakłócenia przebiegu procesu ich „psychicznych narodzin” mogą się realizować w postaci przeświadczenia, że w ich relacji z rodzicem w przeszłości nastąpiło odwrócenie ról i że było to niesprawiedliwe (6,4% wyjaśnianej wariancji). Poza tym, doznawanie w dzieciństwie poczucia niesprawiedliwości na skutek parentyfikacji stanowi prognostyk wystąpienia tego odczucia nadal w dorosłym życiu (44,1% wyjaśnianej wariancji).
Zdaniem Jurkovica [48], to właśnie brak poczucia sprawiedliwości w obszarze brania i dawania w relacji dziecka i opiekuna stanowi najbardziej istotny wewnątrzpsychiczny wskaźnik wystąpienia zjawiska parentyfikacji. Chase [49] uważa, że patologiczną zamianę ról w rodzinie od zdrowej parentyfikacji, czyli takiej, która może sprzyjać rozwojowi odpowiedzialności u dzieci, różni właśnie poczucie dziecka, że wnosiło ono do swojej rodziny zbyt dużo i że było to nie fair. Schier [46] w badaniach prowadzonych w różnych grupach osób (próby kliniczne i niekliniczne) wykazała, że poczucie niesprawiedliwości doświadczane w przeszłości jest tym elementem, który ma związek z poważnymi problemami funkcjonowania danej osoby w dorosłości. Pasternak i Schier [25] ujawniły, że kobiety pochodzące z rodzin alkoholowych, w odróżnieniu od osób niemających pijącego rodzica, zajmowały się w przeszłości swoimi rodzicami, zarówno instrumentalnie, jak i emocjonalnie, doświadczając odwrócenia ról w rodzinie. Co więcej, wykazano, że tendencja ta utrzymywała się także w dorosłości [25]. Jurkovic [48] zwraca uwagę, że istotne znaczenie dla powstania negatywnych skutków parentyfikacji ma stopień identyfikacji danej osoby z jej opiekuńczą rolą wobec rodziców. W opisywanych tu badaniach można powiedzieć, że swoistą konsekwencją poczucia niesprawiedliwości dotyczącego przeszłości jest poczucie niesprawiedliwości doświadczane aktualnie w relacjach osoby z jej rodzicami. Oba te uczucia są immanentnie związane z zaburzeniami procesu separacji–indywiduacji. Jeśli nie jest się oddzielonym od potrzeb rodzica, a Restriction map więc stanowią one część Ja, wówczas nie można mieć do nich dystansu i doświadcza się przeżycia niesprawiedliwego traktowania [46]. Zyskanie takiego dystansu, czyli nieodczuwanie w pełni negatywnych konsekwencji urazowych zdarzeń, jest możliwe w szczególnych okolicznościach, na przykład w kontekście zjawiska rezyliencji, tj. odporności psychicznej [50]. Autorzy [6, 46] wskazują w tym aspekcie na rolę przynajmniej jednej zainteresowanej i troskliwej osoby dorosłej, o odmiennych cechach funkcjonowania umysłu niż rodzice dziecka. Warto zauważyć, że ten sposób wyjaśnienia jest zbieżny z tezami modelu interdeterministycznego, opisywanego w literaturze poświęconej DDA [16].

To determine the roles of SOCS

To determine the roles of SOCS family members expressed in M2 macrophages in the regulation of CHS, we analyzed mRNA levels of SOCS family members in M2 macrophages isolated from the sites of DNFB-induced CHS by RNA-sequencing. Among eight SOCS family members, SOCS3 was highly expressed not only in M1 macrophages but also in M2 macrophages at mRNA levels. In addition, flow cytometric analyses of various cell types harvested from the sites of DNFB-induced CHS revealed that M2 macrophages expressed higher levels of SOCS3 protein than M1 macrophages, CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, and neutrophils. These results suggest that SOCS3 is highly and preferentially expressed in M2 macrophages at the sites of DNFB-induced CHS.
It has been shown that IFN-γ, one of the important Chemical library cytokines eliciting hapten-induced CHS, induces the expression of SOCS3 in macrophages. Therefore, we examined the effect of neutralizing anti-IFN-γ antibody on SOCS3 expression in M2 macrophages in the elicitation phase of DNFB-induced CHS. As expected, the injection of anti-IFN-γ antibody diminished SOCS3 expression in M2 macrophages at the sites of DNFB-induced CHS. Consistently, recombinant IFN-γ induced SOCS3 expression in BM-derived M2 macrophages. Taken together, these findings suggest that endogenously produced IFN-γ at the site of CHS induces SOCS3 expression in M2 macrophages during the elicitation phase of CHS, although the molecular mechanism underlying IFN-γ-induced up-regulation of SOCS3 expression in M2 macrophages is uncertain. Further studies are required to elucidate the mechanism of SOCS3 induction by IFN-γ.
It has recently been demonstrated that when SOCS3 is deleted by LysM-Cre-driven excision of the Socs3 allele in macrophages (SOCS3-cKO mice), LPS stimulation results in enhanced M1 polarization. Similarly, enhanced M1 gene expression in response to LPS has been reported in alveolar macrophages of SOCS3-cKO mice. These in vitro studies suggest that SOCS3 functions as a negative regulator of M1 polarization program in murine macrophages.

Roles of SOCS3 expressed in M2 macrophages in CHS
To clarify the role of SOCS3 expressed in macrophages in CHS, we examined DNFB-induced CHS in SOCS3-cKO mice. SOCS3-cKO mice exhibited enhanced ear thickness as compared with littermate control mice. Ear thickness persisted over 30 days after DNFB challenge in SOCS3-cKO mice, whereas ear thickness returned to baseline levels at 10 days after DNFB challenge in control mice. Histological analyses showed that SOCS3-cKO mice exhibited severe inflammation in the skin. Flow cytometric analyses of leukocytes harvested from the ear demonstrated that the numbers of CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, neutrophils, M1 macrophages, and M2 macrophages were significantly increased in SOCS3-cKO mice as compared with those in control mice. These results suggest that SOCS3 expressed in macrophages is involved in down-regulation of hapten-induced CHS.
To determine the roles of SOCS3 expressed in M2 macrophages in CHS, we performed cell transfer experiments. Intradermal injection of BM-derived M2 macrophages of SOCS3-cKO mice tended to exacerbate ear thickness and accumulation of neutrophils, M1 macrophages, and M2 macrophages in the skin more strongly than that of BM-derived M2 macrophages of control mice. In addition, pretreatment of BM-derived M2 macrophages with IFN-γ attenuated the exacerbation of CHS when BM cells were derived from control mice but not from SOCS3-cKO mice. These results indicate that IFN-γ exhibits an anti-inflammatory property on M2 macrophage-mediated exacerbation of CHS in a SOCS3-dependent manner.
To address the involvement of MMP12 in M2 macrophage-mediated exacerbation of CHS in SOCS3-cKO mice, we examined the expression of MMP12 mRNA in M2 macrophages isolated from the skin of SOCS3-cKO mice and control mice in DNFB-induced CHS. qPCR analysis revealed that the expression of MMP12 in M2 macrophages was higher in SOCS3-cKO mice than that in control mice. Consistent with these in vivo data, the expression of MMP12 mRNA in BM-derived M2 macrophages was higher in SOCS3-cKO mice than that in control mice. These findings suggest that SOCS3 is involved in the suppression of MMP12 expression in M2 macrophages.

It is difficult to evaluate the efficacy of CAM treatments

It is difficult to evaluate the efficacy of CAM treatments. Comparative studies have been performed to assess various alternative medicine therapies in AR. Recent studies on CAM therapy for AR and respiratory disorders indicated that acupuncture, herbal medicines, and homeopathy remain popular to this day. Phototherapy, which was not included in our questionnaire as it is rarely used in Japan, is a relatively new treatment that was evaluated by several studies. Although improvements in symptoms have been reported in some studies that included comparisons with a placebo group or sham treatment, the details of such comparative studies, including the evaluation methods and investigators, were not discussed sufficiently. Therefore, the evidence in many of these studies is insufficient. Although high efficacy has been reported in some studies, additional studies were unable to confirm these results.
CAM therapies are also widely used by patients with renin inhibitor and atopic dermatitis. Many patients with asthma use acupuncture, herbal medicines, homeopathy, and breathing techniques. A recent review of CAM for atopic dermatitis showed evidence supporting the use of acupuncture and acupressure, stress-reducing techniques, balneotherapy, herbal medicines, topical applicants, dietary therapy, and health supplements. While some of these approaches might be effective, evidence supporting the efficacy of CAM in these allergic diseases is not consistent, similar to that observed for AR. Recent studies assessing the efficacy of CAM for asthma emphasized that CAM endorsement was associated with negative standard treatment beliefs, uncontrolled asthma, and poorer health-related quality of life.
On the other hand, many comparative studies have been performed of standard treatments, including meta-analyses, and the considerable placebo effect has attracted much attention in such studies. Since there are no objective biomarkers of the effects on AR, the therapeutic effects must be evaluated subjectively by the patients. It is widely known that assessing the therapeutic effects in AR patients is not easy because of the high rate of the placebo effect. The effects of CAM are believed to be due to the placebo effect in many cases. However, it is also difficult to demonstrate that CAM treatments do not have any effects.

Conflict of interest

Authors\’ contributions

Acknowledgements
This work was supported by a grant from the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (H19-Immunity general-010). We thank all of the otolaryngologists who cooperated with us on the survey.

Introduction
Asthma is a common respiratory disease characterized by reversible airway obstruction, airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), and chronic airway inflammation with eosinophils. The majority of patients with asthma are well controlled by combined treatment with inhaled corticosteroids, long-acting β-agonists, and leukotriene receptor antagonists. These drugs have anti-inflammatory effects on chronic airway inflammation, but do not cure asthma. While allergen-specific immunotherapy might cure asthma, some problems, such as the administration route of the allergen, must be overcome. Recently, patients with allergic rhinitis and asthma induced by mite-allergen were treated with an allergen-specific sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT). The SLIT route could be beneficial toward curing these allergic airway diseases, but some difficulties remain.
Galectin-9 (Gal-9) is a β-galactoside binding animal lectin that induces various biologic reactions, such as cell chemoattraction, activation, and apoptosis. Gal-9 functions as an immunomodulator in excessive immunologic reactions by expanding regulatory T cells (Treg) and immunosuppressive macrophages. Furthermore, Gal-9 and CD44 interactions enhance the stability and function of adaptive Treg through smad3-dependent mechanisms. The role of Gal-9 in allergic respiratory diseases, however, remains unclear.
In the present study, we developed a SLIT model of mite allergen-induced chronic asthma using the Dermatophagoides farinae (Df)-induced murine model of chronic asthma that we previously developed. We also used recombinant stable human Gal-9 as an adjuvant to the mite-allergen. The additive effects of Gal-9 in this SLIT model were evaluated by physiological examination, eosinophilic airway inflammation, and serum allergen-specific immunoglobulin levels, especially immunoglobulin IgE.

Asthma is one of the most common diseases

Asthma is one of the most common diseases in the world. The prevalence of aconitine has increased with urbanization, industrialization and lifestyle change. However there are several reports showing that international differences in asthma prevalence have reduced in recent years, mostly in children and adolescents; asthma prevalence is increasing in Asia, Africa, and South America while decreasing in English-speaking countries and Western European countries after the 2000s. Between phase I and II of the ISSAC study with an interval of 5–10 years in 2000s, the mean symptom prevalence of wheezing during the last one year increased slightly from 13.2% to 13.7% worldwide but a marked decrease was observed in English-speaking countries in the case of children and adolescents. Although there are only a few studies that show the changing trend of asthma prevalence in adults, some investigators have reported no increase in asthma prevalence after the 2000s based on symptoms in a young adult cohort in Europe. In Korea, the prevalence of asthma was highest in 0–3 year-old group and decreased with age. It seems to be 5–8% in children and reached a plateau in the 13–14 year group during 5-year interval in the 2000s. The prevalence of adult asthma in Korea was estimated to be 2% in a survey performed in 2008 and other report based on drug prescription data estimated it as 5.4% in 2010 and it showed continued increasing pattern until 2010. In our data, the prevalence of asthma was 13.2% and 2.7% in the under and over 10 year old group in 2014, respectively. Both had a decreasing prevalence during the recent six years and the changing trend in asthma prevalence in Korea seems to have plateaued like in Western developed countries.
Total cost paid to medical institutions by the NHI program was 35.0, 207.2 and 146.9 million dollars for atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis and asthma, respectively. Each benefit was ranked 158th, 26th and 34th. Medical costs per person for the past six years have slightly increased and it shows a similar result when divided by the 10-year age groups. In other literature about asthma, the proportion of cost reimbursed by the NHI is for about 22.5% of the total expenditure. Applying this information to our data, the total cost for asthma management in Korea may be estimated to be 653 million dollars in 2014.
As mentioned above, atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis and asthma have rapidly increased for the past several decades worldwide with urbanization and industrialization. There are some hypotheses explaining the cause of this phenomenon, including the hygiene hypothesis. In addition, there are many possible risk factors to explain ‘allergic epidemic’ such as allergen levels in the air, diet change, smoking, vaccination level, exposure to pets, socioeconomic status, etc. However, there are several studies suggesting that the prevalence of chronic allergic diseases has plateaued or decreased recently in some countries, especially in children and young adults. Risk factors or a hygiene hypothesis cannot fully explain this phenomenon. In the ISSAC trial, discordance in prevalence in the 6–7 and 13–14 year age-groups was explained with the collapse of the communist system of Europe in the 1990s. Therefore, the trends in epidemiology would be more explainable by taking into account social and environmental changes.
Our data showing that the recent prevalence of allergic diseases in Korea are not increasing suggests several important points to understand current epidemiology of allergic diseases. First, it might be reflection of changing disease patterns keeping pace with rapid transition to an industrialized society. As Korea went through extremely rapid urbanization and industrialization from the 1960s to the 1990s, residential environment and hygiene dramatically changed: family size diminished, and lifestyle became similar with those of western countries. From the 2000s, the urbanization and industrialization of Korea was almost completed, and Korea reached post-industrialization era. While the prevalence of chronic allergic diseases up until recently in Korea reflects the rapid urbanization and industrialization before the 2000s, it seems to come up to the plateau by the completion of rapid industrialization after the 2000s. Recent changes of trend according to change of society are important to expect the future pattern of allergic diseases in other countries which have been on a similar development process. Second, our data show that there are still age groups of which prevalence is higher than other group even though overall prevalence does not increase. In under 10 year-old group, prevalence of all three diseases is higher than over 10 year-old group and, moreover, that of allergic rhinitis is still increasing. In fact there are many potential factors influencing allergic diseases in children but it is still unknown whether and how they contribute to the development of allergic disease in childhood. It emphasizes that the unmet needs for proper management and prevention of allergic disease in children.

aldose reductase inhibitors br Experimental results For validating the control concept

Experimental results
For validating the control concept, a laboratory prototype is implemented. The block diagram of the experimental setup and a real view of the complete control system are shown in Figs. 6 and 7, respectively. The main components of the system which are labeled as in Fig. 7 are listed in Table 2. The proposed PFC control is done on a digital signal processor board (DS1104) plugged into a computer. The control algorithm is executed by ‘Matlab/Simulink’, and downloaded to the board through the host computer. The output of the board is a logic signal, which is fed to IGBT through driver and isolation circuits.
The steady-state experimental results of the supply voltage and current waveforms, in case of using a single-phase rectifier without PFC circuit to drive the LED lamps, are shown in Fig. 8(a). It is shown that aldose reductase inhibitors the input current has narrow pulses, which in turn increases its root mean square (RMS) value and consequently, a voltage dip in the supply voltage due to peak value of input current appears.
The experimental result of the harmonics spectrum of the supply current is shown in Fig. 8(b). It is observed that the supply voltage has THD of 6.6%, and the input current has a high THD of 87.94% with a low PF of 0.75 as using a single-phase rectifier without PFC circuit to drive LED lamps.
The experimental results of the load voltage and current waveforms are shown in Fig. 8(c). It is observed that the load voltage and current have a nearly DC value with small ripples.

Conclusion

Introduction
In 1957, a new managerial planning and control technique was developed, Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) by the U.S. Navy Special Projects Office on the Polaris missile system to support the nuclear submarine projects. It is a technique for estimating and planning a large project. One of its most powerful concepts is the management of probabilities. PERT makes use of simple statistical mathematics in order to come up with a probability distribution for the completion dates of the project milestones, habitat disruption was designed to provide: (1) Management information on actual and impending problems in completing a project; (2) A continuous status report on active projects for achieving established objectives, completion dates, and the probability of reaching both; and (3) Notation of most and least critical component activities within each project. PERT presented a comprehensive illustration of all major project activities and their interdependencies. In fact, it even provided time requirements needed for completing each component activity. It focused managerial attention on those business activities most vital in meeting the project completion date and identified which resources could be used more effectively if transferred to other phases of a project. Finally, PERT provided a scheme of the project as it occurred, thereby illustrating the effects of managerial changes in the entire project. The ability of PERT to predict future performance and potential future problems through frequency reporting, marked its major departure from previous planning and control techniques which relied heavily on historical data. The estimation of time for the completion of each activity is important in the network analysis; this can be done using three possible assumptions: (1) Most optimistic time (a): This time assumes that everything will go according to minimum amount of difficulties and such situation may occur approximately one percent of time; (2) Most pessimistic time (b): This time assumes that everything will not go according to plan and that the maximum potential difficulties will develop and may occur approximately one percent of time; and (3) Most likely or normal time (m): This is the time that would most often occur, should this effort be reported over again. The estimated time of an activity completion is given by using three estimates that are combined into an expected duration and a standard deviation. The expected completion duration (μ) is assumed to be (1×a+4×m+1×b)÷6, and the standard deviation (s) is assumed to be (b–a) ÷6.

Introduction br Model of wind

Introduction

Model of wind turbine system

STATCOM model
Fig. 1 shows the basic model of a STATCOM which is connected to the wind farm bus through a coupling transformer. The STATCOM is designed using a power electronic Voltage Source Converter VSC. The function of the VSC is a fully controllable voltage source matching the system voltage in phase, frequency, and with amplitude which can be continuously and rapidly controlled, so as to be used as the tool for reactive power control. The VSC can inject or absorb reactive power to/from the bus where it is connected via a coupling transformer. The output of the controller Qc is proportional to the voltage magnitude difference (Vc–V) and is given by the following equation
In a STATCOM, the maximum compensating current is independent of system voltage, so it operates at full capacity even at low voltages. A STATCOM’s advantages include flexible voltage control for power quality improvement, fast response, and applicability for use with high fluctuating loads. Fig. 1 also shows the block diagram of the STATCOM controller. The fundamental component of the generated voltage Vc is controlled by varying the DC bus voltage. The STATCOM control system task is to increase or decrease the capacitor DC voltage, so that the generated voltage Vc has the correct amplitude for the required reactive power. During steady-state operation, the STATCOM control system must keep the generated voltage Vc in phase with the system voltage V except a small phase shift is allowed for active power required by transformer and inverter losses. The voltage and current measurement systems compute the positive sequence components of the STATCOM voltage and current respectively using phase-to-dq transformation. The voltage regulator block is a PI controller which computes the reactive current reference Iq-ref uses the measured voltage mean value Vmean and reference voltage value Vref. The current regulator block is a PI controller which computes the phase shift angle of the inverter voltage with respect to system voltage. For example, when the system voltage Vmean decreases than Vref, the voltage regulator output is a positive Iq-ref. Then the current regulator will increase the phase shift angle lag inverter voltage with respect to system voltage to generate more capacitive reactive power.

Case study

Simulation results and analysis
The effect of fault location and its duration on the colony stimulating factor 1 receptor of the wind farm connected grid are studied for different fault types as single line to ground fault, double line to ground fault, and three-line to ground fault. To study the effect of fault location on the behavior of the wind farm, the operation of the wind farm under different fault types are monitored twice, one when the fault occurs at the first fault location P1 about 1km from wind turbines, and the other when the fault occurs at the second fault location P2 about 26km from wind turbines. Also, to study the effect of fault duration time on the behavior of the wind farm, the operation of the wind farm under different fault duration times is monitored when the fault occurs at the point P1. The fault duration time is varied between 80 and 150ms. The effect of a 3 MVAR STATCOM on the behavior of the wind farm are studied for all cases.

Conclusion
The effect of fault location and fault duration time on the behavior of the wind farm interconnected grid during different fault types are studied. Also, the impacts of the Static Synchronous Compensator STATCOM on the stability of the system during different fault locations and different fault duration times are studied. A simulation model of 9MW SCIG wind farm interconnected grid is investigated. The wind farm terminal voltage, the exported active power, and the absorbed reactive power are monitored in steady state and fault state conditions. The fault occurs at two fault locations P1 and P2. Where P1 is located at 1km from wind turbines and P2 is located at 26km from wind turbines. By studying the effect of fault location, in the cases of single line to ground fault and double line to ground fault the wind farm has the ability to stay connected under fault condition with or without STATCOM connection either when the fault occurs at points P1or P2 for 88ms duration time. But in case of three-line to ground fault with or without STATCOM the wind farm has ability to stay connected to the grid when the fault occurs at the point P2. In case of three-line to ground fault occurs at the point P1, the wind farm can stay connected to the grid only when the STATCOM is connected. By studying the effect of fault duration time, in case of single line to ground fault, the wind farm can stay connected to the grid in case of 80ms and 150ms fault duration times when the system operates with or without STATCOM. In case of double line to ground fault, when the system operates without STATCOM, the protection system trips the wind farm due to under-voltage condition in case of fault duration time equals or exceeds than 97ms. But when the STATCOM is connected, the system colony stimulating factor 1 receptor can return back to steady state and the wind farm can stay connected to the grid. In case of three line to ground fault, when the system operates without STATCOM, the protection system trips the wind farm due to under-voltage condition in case of fault duration time equals or exceeds than 88ms. But when the STATCOM is connected, the system can return back to steady state and the wind farm can stay connected to the grid.

The corrosion of concrete structures can be

The corrosion of concrete structures can be described as a two-stage process: (i) corrosion initiation stage; and (ii) corrosion propagation stage [3]. For chloride-induced corrosion, the initiation stage corresponds to the period of time during which chlorides penetrate the concrete but no damage is observed. The corrosion initiation time is defined as the time at which the concentration of chlorides at the steel surface reaches a critical or threshold value.
Aggressive agents such as chlorides, water, and oxygen penetrate into concrete through the pore spaces in the cement paste matrix and micro-cracks. The rate of penetration is dependent primarily on the quality of concrete and more particularly on the water–cement ratio of the concrete mix and the presence of supplementary cementing materials (e.g., silica fume, fly ash, or slag) and/or protective systems that delay or slow down chloride ingress. In porous solids, such as concrete, moisture may flow via the diffusion of water vapor, and via non-saturated or even saturated capillary flow in finer pores [4].
A little attention has been directed toward clarifying the relationship between W/B ratios, slag content, concrete cover depth, chloride threshold value, apparent chloride diffusion coefficient, and surface chloride concentrations. Having a good understanding to such aspects and their relationships to each other could provide a good SB431542 for reducing the risk of degradation of concrete, consequently prolonging its service life and reducing the running cost (maintenance).
In this study, the error function solution to Fick’s second law of diffusion was used a service life model to evaluate the variations in the time to corrosion initiation of slag concrete caused by variations in the input data of the model, which include concrete cover depth, chloride diffusion coefficient, surface chloride concentration, chloride threshold level, water/binder ratio, and slag content. The error function solution as applied by Crank [5] may be stated asC(,) is the chloride concentration at depth and time, the surface chloride concentration, the apparent diffusion coefficient, t the time for diffusion, x the concrete cover depth, and erf is the statistical error function.
When C(,) is set equal to the chloride corrosion initiation concentration (chloride threshold value) and Eq. (1) is solved for t, the time for diffusion of chloride ions to the chloride corrosion initiation concentration can be determined.
Therefore, the present study was undertaken with the following objectives:

Experimental

Results and discussion
Prior to studying the impact of utilizing slag on service life of concrete, the microstructure of OPC hardened cement paste containing such type of cement replacement material has been firstly investigated, to clarify its role on the hydration products and pore structure. Two approaches were, therefore, adopted, thermo-gravimetric analysis and de-sorption test, to elucidate the hydration products and pore structure of such matrix. These approaches were adopted in the literature and found to be reliable, simple, and cheap techniques for characterizing the microstructure of OPC matrix [6–10].

Conclusions
The main conclusions of this study can be summarized as follow:

Introduction
Irrigation requirements are sometimes estimated from environmental data (pan evaporation, soil moisture reserves and rainfall) and crop factors. Crop factors are multipliers which reflect the water requirement of a particular crop at different times of the year and depend on variables such as canopy area and stage of growth. They can vary by a factor of five and the success of this method of determining irrigation input is very much dependent on the use of realistic crop factors. In determining these factors, little thought is given to internal physiological changes in the plants which may substantially influence their efficiency of water use in the short term. For example, it has been known for a long time that water deficits will induce changes in the gas exchange characteristics of a plant which result in reduced water loss. Such a decrease in water use would obviously be an advantage if it could be achieved without detriment to the crop or any other aspect of crop performance [1]. However, to get the plant to exhibit these changed characteristics, it would normally be necessary to induce a degree of water deficit. This may be difficult to achieve in a conditions way and furthermore, the plant will recover over a period of time, making repeat water deficit events necessary for a sustained effect. This may be possible, but difficult to achieve in practice, and it is known that sustained water deficits usually result in a reduction in fruit yield. Ideally, it would be desirable to separate the positive effects of water deficits (improved water productivity and reduced allocation of resources to vegetative growth in comparison to fruit growth) from the negative effects such as reduced crop yield.

Mercury is one of the metals which attracted wide attention

Mercury is one of the metals which attracted wide attention of ayurvedic chemists and physicians [8]. Indeed the documentation of chemical and physical processes involving mercury is truly enormous in ancient texts of which classics by Vagabhatta and Nagarjuna are noteworthy. Among the various procedures which utilize mercury, we became interested in the one that Ketorolac tromethamine salt involves mercury and sulfur. The process is divided in three distinct steps, namely (i) pre-treatment of mercury and sulfur with herbal and milk products, (ii) mixing of mercury and sulfur along with other herbal ingredients resulting in the formation of black sulfide of mercury, (iii) thermal treatment of black sulfide of mercury at 600–650 °C [9]. The sublimed red sulfide of mercury is termed as rasasindur (alias rasasindura, rasasindoor, rasasinduram, sindur, or sindoor) in Rasashastra and is used extensively in various ailments and diseases [10].
The context of toxicity in metal based drugs in general, and of mercurial preparation in particular is an important issue [11]. It needs to be emphasized that the Rasashastra texts elaborately emphasize the concept of specific attributes in starting materials, intermediates, and products which lead to toxicity and adverse effects in a patient [12]. However, such narrations are at times difficult to interpret in equivalent modern scientific terms. The elaborate preparative protocol in the synthesis of rasasindur prompted us to study the physico-chemical properties of rasasindur. As presented below, we are delighted to find that the synthesis protocol described in the ancient text is indeed a case of bottom-up synthesis of red sulfide of mercury in nanoscale [13]. In light of the results of the present study and those by others [14,15] the context of nanotransformation (and its plausible implication on bio-efficacy/bio-availability/in-vivo toxicity) in metal-based ayurvedic drugs warrants a relook.

Experimental

Results & discussion

Conclusion
Aided by a battery of experimental tools namely PXRD, HRTEM, SEM-EDS, XPS, Raman, UV–Vis-DRS, and PL-spectroscopy we conclude that:
In addition to the above results, the following information from bio-chemical studies is noteworthy:

Conflict of interest

Acknowledgement

Introduction
Swimming as a competitive sport involves propelling one\’s body in water by pushing against it. The water, because of its greater density, offers more resistance to the swimmers than air in land based sports [1]. Competitive swimmers are expected to have specific anthropometrical features compared to other athletes [2]. Swimming being an activity that requires physical strength and endurance, is often associated with large lung volumes and relatively reduced flow, which may represent a physiological variant of normal pulmonary functions but also can signify an obstructive abnormality [3]. Increased respiratory work in competitive swimming induces respiratory muscle fatigue and in turn reduces swimming endurance, performance and breathing frequency [4,5]. Evidence suggests that serum lactate, a metabolic by product of the glycolytic pathway increases in swimming and contributes to stiffness and soreness [6]. Increased serum lactate levels have been shown to influence stroke rate and distance covered per stroke while swimming [7].
The conventional method used for competitive swimming is inhaling through the mouth in a short time and exhaling the air from the nose while underwater [8,9], thereby reducing the resistance caused by turning the head [10]. However, due to an increase in exhalation, which helps in overcoming the resistance of water, there is a resultant increase in the fatigue of the respiratory muscles [11] and reduction in blood flow and oxygen supply to other exercising muscles [3].
In competitive swimming, strict regulation of breathing is essential [12] to ensure maximum levels of oxygen in a relatively available short time span [13]. Techniques evolved to enhance performance and to overcome the associated complications of swimming had focused on keeping well-conditioned lungs, increasing the vital capacity, regulating breathing pattern and strengthening respiratory musculature [4].

The B O contents were determined by titration of

The B2O3 contents were determined by titration of mannitol–boric nfps complex with standard NaOH solution (0.1M). The residual carbon in the final products was determined by the method used in [9,22]. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra of starting materials and condensed products were recorded on Shimadzu Prestige 21 spectrometer. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of pyrolyzed powder and products were obtained using powder X-ray diffractometer (Rigaku). The B4C peak intensity ratio of the products was estimated from the main peak intensities of each of the B4C, carbon, and B2O3. The morphology of pyrolyzed powder and products was examined using a scanning electron microscope (LEO 440). A Cilas 1064 laser particle size analyzer was utilized for determining the average particle size and particle size distribution. The BET specific surface area, pore size distribution by pore diameter, and pore volume were determined by Quanta chrome Autosorb 1C BET Surface Area & Pore Volume Analyzer. The surface areas and pore volumes (or pore size distribution) were determined from nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherms by using the Brunauer–Emmet–Teller (BET) equation and Barret–Joyner–Halenda (BJH) methods.

Results and discussion
In order to comprehend the formation of borate ester, FTIR spectra of the starting materials and the condensed products, with and without addition of EG, are depicted in Fig. 1. Fig. 1(ii a and b) indicates the FTIR spectra of condensed products with and without the addition of EG. The peak observed at 2964cm−1 is attributed to the asymmetric stretching of –CH2, –CH3 groups present in organic derivatives [24,25]. The appearance of the band at 1730cm−1 for –COOH groups, the bands at 1585 and 1380cm−1, respectively, for the asymmetric and symmetric stretching of CO, and the bands at 1020cm−1, 1080cm−1, 1130cm−1, and 1287cm−1 for CO and BOC [13,14,21,24,25] strongly suggest that some –COOH groups in CA have reacted with ethylene glycol and boric acid, while some have not. This phenomenon is further strengthened by the fact that band at 1730cm−1, for carbonyl groups (COO–), becomes weaker, and OH stretching band becomes stronger with the addition of EG (Fig. 1(ii a)). The broad peak observed at 3230cm−1 (Fig. 1(ii a)) is due to the presence of –OH groups in CA and ethylene glycol derivatives [13–17,21,23–25], which is much weaker than that of starting citric acid and ethylene glycol. This result suggests the consumption of OH group by esterification and also the existence of unreacted OH groups. With the introduction of EG, a band at 1250cm−1 also appears which is attributed to the COC structure from ethylene glycol [25]. Addition of EG also induces an additional BOC stretching vibration at 1287cm−1[14,21]. These results indicate the reaction of borate citrate with EG. Furthermore, the BOH bending band at 1190cm−1 and OH torsion band at 752cm−1[14,21] derived from BA disappear (Fig. 1(ii a and b)) in the condensed products. These results indicate that firstly, the borate citrate (BOC) is formed in the prepared condensed product by dehydration condensation of BA and citric acid (Fig. 1(ii b)). The borate citrate undergoes further esterification with ethylene glycol to grow into a polymer network. The polymeric structure is broken down and releases carbon and B2O3 in the firing process.
The C/B2O3 contents of the pyrolyzed samples, with and without the additions of ethylene glycol, at 550–750°C for 2h are depicted in Fig. 2. According to the stoichiometric carbothermal reaction between B2O3 and C to afford boron carbide, the C/B2O3 ratio in the pyrolyzed sample should be about 3.5. Moreover, the carbothermal reaction is also accompanied by a slight boric species loss owing to the formation of volatile boron suboxides above 1050°C [4,6,7,9,26–28]. Therefore, it is necessary to control the C/B2O3 ratio to 3.5 for the synthesis of boron carbide powder with less free carbon. It is evident in Fig. 2 that C/B2O3 contents of the pyrolyzed samples at 600°C and 650°C are close to 3.5, while these are exactly 3.5 for 20% EG additions at 650°C. Consequently, heating at 650°C should preferably be used as a suitable pyrolysis temperature. It is also obvious that the pyrolysis temperature, to achieve the C/B2O3 ratio in the range of 3.4–3.7, is lower (550°C) for higher amounts of EG additions (40% and 50%). This phenomenon is ascribed to the low temperature decomposition of some unreacted isolated low-thermal-stability parts without ester bonds (BOC) forming with large amounts of EG additions.